ARNOLD WOLFENDALE a1 a1 Department of Physics, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
E-mail: [email protected]
The human species is beset by ‘risks’; one of which is related to its exposed position on the Earth as it travels through cosmic space. An examination is made of the major risks – those associated with cometary impact, with solar emissions and with the explosions of nearby stars. Estimates are given of the risks associated with trying to avoid the effect of these phenomena. Not surprisingly it is concluded that more work is necessary.