Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Short Communication

Empathy, simulation, and PAM

Robert M. Gordon a1
a1 Department of Philosophy, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO 63121 [email protected]


The wealth of important and convergent evidence discussed in the target article contrasts with the poorly conceived theory put forward to explain it. The simulation theory does a better job of explaining how automatic “mirroring” mechanisms might work together with high-level cognitive processes. It also explains what the authors' PAM theory merely stipulates.