| Special Review Series - Biogenesis and Physiological Adaptation of Mitochondria|| |
The effects of steroid hormones on the transcription of genes encoding enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation
|Klaus Scheller a1 and Constantine E. Sekeris a2|
a1 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Biocenter of the University, Wurzburg, Germany and a2 Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece
Regulation of energy metabolism is one of the major functions of steroid hormones. In this process, mitochondria, by way of oxidative phosphorylation, play a central role. Depending on the energy needs of the cell, on the tissue, on the developmental stage and on the intensity of the hormonal stimulus, the response can be an activation of pre-existing respiratory chain components, an increased transcription of nuclear-encoded and/or mitochondrial-encoded respiratory chain enzyme (OXPHOS) genes and of biosynthesis of the respective enzyme subunits or, in extreme cases of high energy needs, an increase in the number of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA content per cell. Some of the hormonally regulated systems involving effects on nuclear and mitochondrial OXPHOS genes are reviewed in this paper. The possible molecular mechanisms of steroid hormone action on nuclear and mitochondrial gene transcription and possible ways of coordination of transcription in these two separate cell compartments involving direct interaction of steroid receptors with hormone response elements in nuclear OXPHOS genes and in mitochondria and induction/activation of nuclear-encoded regulatory factors affecting mitochondrial gene transcription are presented. Experimental Physiology (2003) 88.1, 129-140.