Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society



Theoretically derived CVLT subtypes in HIV-1 infection: Internal and external validation


SHEMIRA  MURJI  a1 a2, SEAN B.  ROURKE  a2 a3 a4 c1, JACOBUS  DONDERS  a5, SHERRI L.  CARTER  a1 a2, DOUGLAS  SHORE  a1 and BYRON P.  ROURKE  a1 a6
a1 University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
a2 St. Michael's Hospital Mental Health Service, Toronto, Canada
a3 St. Michael's Hospital Inner City Health Research Unit, Toronto, Canada
a4 University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
a5 Mary Free Bed Hospital, Grand Rapids, Michigan
a6 Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Abstract

The present study sought to delineate empirically derived memory subtypes using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT; Delis et al., 1987) in a sample of adults with HIV-1 infection (N = 154). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate eight models of the CVLT structure suggested by Wiegner and Donders (1999). A four-factor model, consisting of Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Recall, and Inaccurate Recall appeared to be the best fitting model. Variables with the highest factor loadings from the model were entered in a two-stage cluster analysis. Four reliable CVLT clusters or subtypes were identified: Normal, Atypical, Subsyndromal, and Frontal-striatal. Internal and external validation of subtypes demonstrated that clusters were stable and clinically interpretable. Subtypes were meaningfully related to neuropsychological functioning, and to some extent, depressive symptomatology. Subtypes did not differ significantly with respect to subjective neurocognitive complaints and markers of HIV-1 disease. The present findings highlight the heterogeneity of memory profiles in HIV-1 infection and support a frontal-striatal conceptualization of verbal memory performance. The identification of robust HIV-1 memory subtypes may have important implications for the clinical management of adults infected with HIV-1 infection. (JINS, 2003, 9, 1–16.)

(Received July 2 2001)
(Revised December 10 2001)
(Accepted December 11 2001)


Key Words: HIV; AIDS; Neuropsychological; Memory; CVLT.

Correspondence:
c1 Reprint requests to: Sean B. Rourke, Ph.D., St. Michael's Hospital, Neurobehavioural Research, Program in HIV/AIDS, 2-Shuter, Rm 2044, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W8 Canada. E-mail: sean.rourke@utoronto.ca