Animal Health Research Reviews

Review Article

Up to new tricks – A review of cross-species transmission of influenza A viruses

Gabriele A. Landolta1 c1 and Christopher W. Olsena2

a1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA

a2 Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA


Influenza is a highly contagious disease that has burdened both humans and animals since ancient times. In humans, the most dramatic consequences of influenza are associated with periodically occurring pandemics. Pandemics require the emergence of an antigenically novel virus to which the majority of the population lacks protective immunity. Historically, influenza A viruses from animals have contributed to the generation of human pandemic viruses and they may do so again in the future. It is, therefore, critical to understand the epidemiological and molecular mechanisms that allow influenza A viruses to cross species barriers. This review summarizes the current knowledge of influenza ecology, and the viral factors that are thought to determine influenza A virus species specificity.

(Received March 05 2007)

(Accepted May 07 2007)


c1 Corresponding author. E-mail: