Public Health Nutrition

Research Paper

Dietary intake and a food-frequency instrument to evaluate a nutrition intervention for the Apache in Arizona

Sangita Sharmaa1 c1, Xia Caoa1, Joel Gittelsohna2, Jean Anlikera3, Becky Ethelbaha2 and Benjamin Caballeroa2

a1 Cancer Etiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, 1236 Lauhala Street, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA

a2 Center for Human Nutrition, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA

a3 Department of Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, 100 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA 01003, USA


Objective To demonstrate how dietary data collected from 24-hour dietary recalls were incorporated into the development of a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) for the Apache in Arizona.

Design A cross-sectional study was first conducted using 24-hour dietary recalls to identify foods for inclusion on a QFFQ that would be used to evaluate a nutrition intervention.

Setting The White Mountain and San Carlos Apache reservations in East-central Arizona.

Subjects The 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from a random sample of 53 adults (34 women and 19 men).

Results A QFFQ was developed that included all foods reported by two or more respondents, plus traditional and seasonal foods. Portion size was assessed using familiar household units and culturally appropriate food models. The final instrument contains 155 foods. Frequency of consumption is assessed using eight categories ranking from ‘never or less than once a month’ to ‘2 or more times a day’. Nutrient intakes and the five major food sources of energy, fat and sugar are presented.

Conclusion The QFFQ developed is complete and up-to-date for assessing usual food and nutrient intake for the Apache in Arizona. The instrument will be used to evaluate a food store-based nutrition intervention to reduce risk of chronic diseases.

(Received March 02 2006)

(Accepted November 27 2006)

(Online publication April 04 2007)


c1 Corresponding author: Email