Cognitive sequelae in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with and without recall of the intensive care unit
Some critically ill patients have dramatic recollections of the intensive care unit (ICU), whereas 23–50% have little or no recollection of their ICU stay. In addition, cognitive impairments are common following critical illness and ICU treatment. Little is known regarding the relationship between cognitive sequelae and ICU recall. We assessed recall of the ICU and its relationship to cognitive functioning at hospital discharge and 1 and 2 years after discharge in 70 consecutive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Seventeen patients (24%) had no recall of the ICU. Patients without ICU recall had increased rates of cognitive sequelae at hospital discharge and 1-year follow-up compared with the ICU recall group. Patients without ICU recall had a greater magnitude of cognitive impairments at hospital discharge, but not at 1- or 2-year follow-up. Profile analysis showed significant group differences in general intellectual functioning, executive function, processing speed, and spatial skills at hospital discharge, but not at 1- or 2-year follow-up. Estimated premorbid intelligence scores were inversely related to the magnitude of cognitive sequelae, suggesting greater “cognitive reserve” in patients with fewer cognitive decrements. (JINS, 2007, 13, 595–605.)(Received October 26 2006)
(Revised January 6 2007)
(Accepted January 8 2007)
Key Words: ARDS; Intensive care unit (ICU); Cognitive outcome; Cognitive reserve; Critical; Illness; Sequelae; Memory.
c1 Correspondence and reprint requests to: Ramona O. Hopkins, Ph.D., Division of Critical Care Medicine, LDS Hospital, 8th Avenue and C Street, Salt Lake City, UT 84143, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org