International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies

Research Papers

A 77-GHz antenna and fully integrated radar transceiver in package

A. Fischera1 c1, A. Stelzera1a2 and L. Maurera3

a1 Christian Doppler Laboratory for Integrated Radar Sensors, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria

a2 Institute for Communications Engineering and RF-Systems, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria

a3 DICE GmbH & Co KG, Freistädter Str. 400, 4040 Linz, Austria


A 77-GHz–directional folded dipole antenna integrated in an embedded wafer level ball grid array package is presented. For the characterization of the antenna, a frequency multiplier is embedded, which scales the 4.25-GHz input signal up to 76.5 GHz and allows the use of a commercial signal source. The antenna structure is manufactured at the metallic layer, in the fan-out area of the package, and is directly connected to the monolithically integrated transceiver. The gain of the antenna is about 7 dBi, measured over a large bandwidth of about 8 GHz. The combination of the frequency multiplier with a 77-GHz transceiver and the on-package antenna is a promising approach for a system-in-package to future radar modules for automotive radar applications. Such a module avoids 77-GHz transitions to the printed circuit board and hence simplifies the design and manufacturing of the radar sensor significantly.

(Received September 21 2011)

(Revised January 03 2012)

(Online publication February 16 2012)


  • Dipole antennas;
  • directional antennas;
  • antenna measurements;
  • millimeter wave integrated circuits;
  • millimeter wave measurements;
  • millimeter wave radar;
  • automotive applications


c1 Corresponding author: A. Fischer Email: