Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Open Peer Commentary
Mazur & Booth: Testosterone and dominance

The nurture of nature: Social, developmental, and environmental controls of aggression

Charles T. Snowdon a1
a1 Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1696


Evidence from many species suggests that social, developmental, and cognitive variables are important influences on aggression. Few direct activational or organizational effects of hormones on aggression and dominance are found in nonhuman primates. Female aggression and dominance are relatively frequent and occur with low testosterone levels. Social, cultural, and developmental mechanisms have more important influences on dominance and aggression than hormones.