Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Continuing Commentary
Commentary on Anne Campbell (1999). Staying alive: Evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggression. BBS 22(2):203–252.

Hierarchy disruption: Women and men

János M. Réthelyi a1 and Mária S. Kopp a1
a1 Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, 1089, Hungary


The application of evolutionary perspectives to analyzing sex differences in aggressive behavior and dominance hierarchies has been found useful in multiple areas. We draw attention to the parallel of gender differences in the worsening health status of restructuring societies. Drastic socio-economic changes are interpreted as examples of hierarchy disruption, having differential psychological and behavioral impact on women and men, and leading to different changes in health status.