Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Short Communication

Empathy, simulation, and PAM

Robert M. Gordon a1
a1 Department of Philosophy, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO 63121


The wealth of important and convergent evidence discussed in the target article contrasts with the poorly conceived theory put forward to explain it. The simulation theory does a better job of explaining how automatic “mirroring” mechanisms might work together with high-level cognitive processes. It also explains what the authors' PAM theory merely stipulates.